Atualizações Científicas – 27 de fevereiro a 02 de março de 2012

Publicado em: 5 de Março de 2012

Na última semana, a comunidade científica publicou artigos sobre Infertilidade, Reprodução Humana e Vacina para HPV. A Fecondare selecionou esses artigos e disponibiliza o resumo para que você se mantenha atualizado.

Meiotic non-disjunction mechanisms in human fertile males

Publicado em 01 de Março de 12 pela Human Reproduction, disponível no Oxford Journals.

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: In humans, little is known about the mechanisms of non-disjunction working in male meiosis, although considerable at- tention has been given to these mechanisms in female meiosis. The present study explores the origin of meiotic non-disjunction during human spermatogenesis and the chromosomes most commonly involved in this process.

METHODS: We used Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization to carry out meiotic analyses in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) spermatocytes from three fertile donors. Testicular biopsy was obtained during a vasectomy procedure.

RESULTS: We examined a total of 317 MI and 248 MII spermatocytes. The frequency of numerical chromosome abnormalities at MII (14.5%) was 5.5 times higher than at MI (2.5%). We observed 88 (27.7%) spermatocytes I with chromosome bivalents with a low chiasma count, usually small chromosomes displaying two separated univalents. Chromosomes X, Y and 21 were the most commonly found as achiasmate chromosomes at MI and the most frequently involved in disomy at MII. Hyperploidy frequency in spermatocytes II (disomy) was significantly higher (P , 0.001) than that found in spermatocytes I (trisomy).

CONCLUSIONS: Achiasmate non-disjunction and premature separation of sister chromatids appear to be the two main non-disjunction mechanisms during the first meiotic division in human spermatogenesis, and both mechanisms contribute equally to the genesis of aneu- ploidy. The elevated frequencies of disomy detected in spermatocytes II are significantly higher than those previously described in human spermatozoa, suggesting the existence of a postmeiotic checkpoint monitoring numerical abnormalities.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Fetal Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Due to Antihuman Platelet Antigen Maternal Antibodies

Publicado em Fevereiro de 12 pela Obstetrics & Gynecology, disponível no Pub Med.

Resumo:

OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable preimplantation genetic diagnosis protocol for antihuman platelet antigen-1 incompatibility for a family in whom antenatal treatment was not possible because of the mother’s hypersensitivity to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).

METHODS: Haplotypes were constructed from genomic DNA of the family members. A polymerase chain reaction protocol that included eight microsatellite polymorphic markers and the ITGB3-specific (T196C, rs5918) polymorphism were multiplexed to be used in a single cell protocol, and single blastomeres were analyzed.

RESULTS: In one preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycle, out of 28 retrieved oocytes, 24 embryos fertilized and 12 underwent biopsy. Three embryos were found to be antihuman platelet antigen-1b/1b homozygotes and two were transferred. This cycle resulted in an uneventful pregnancy and birth of a healthy child.

CONCLUSION: In cases in which there is antihuman platelet antigen incompatibility and IVIG cannot be administered, preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a reliable alternative to enable birth of unaffected children.

Successful Pregnancies After Removal of Intratubal Microinserts

Publicado em Fevereiro de 12 pela Obstetrics & Gynecology, disponível no Pub Med.

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: Patients with intratubal microinsert sterilization later may request reversal.

CASE: Each patient underwent mini-laparotomy and removal of intratubal microinserts. One patient underwent unilateral tubotubal anastomosis and unilateral tubouterine implantation through a cornual uterine incision. The other patient underwent bilateral tubouterine implantation through a posterior transfundal uterine incision. The first patient became pregnant 4 months after surgery, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and underwent an elective cesarean delivery at term. The second patient became pregnant 8 months after surgery and had a pregnancy complicated by unexplained abdominal pain at 34 weeks of gestation that resulted in early cesarean delivery.

CONCLUSION: Proximal tubal occlusion from intratubal microinserts can be corrected surgically and can provide patients an alternative to in vitro fertilization.

Case Reports: Complex Ovarian Pregnancy

Publicado em Fevereiro de 12 pela Obstetrics & Gynecology, disponível no Pub Med.

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare occurrence. Normally it ends spontaneously in the first trimester. However, it can turn into a life-threatening condition if it ruptures, leading to hemoperitoneum and hypovolemic shock. Diagnosis usually is made with high-resolution transvaginal ultrasonography, and laparoscopic treatment follows.

CASE: We report on a case of ovarian pregnancy seen in the southeast of Madagascar. Laparotomy revealed the presence of a fully developed, mummified fetus in the right ovary. Surprisingly, the ovary capsule had not ruptured and the patient had no complaints or signs of intra-abdominal bleeding.

CONCLUSION: In rare cases, an aborted ovarian pregnancy can persist for years, producing no symptoms except abdominal swelling.

‘Zero is not good for me’: implications of infertility in Ghana

Publicado em 21 Fevereiro de 12 pela Human Reproduction, disponível no Pub Med.

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: Given the high value placed on children in sub-Saharan Africa, previous research suggests that infertility increases the risk of psychological distress and marital conflict, encourages risky sexual behavior and deprives infertile individuals and couples of an important source of economic and social capital. This paper explores the implications of infertility for women in Ghana, West Africa.

METHODS: Semi-structured interview data collected from 107 women (aged 21–48 years, mean 33 years) seeking treatment in gyneco- logical and obstetric clinics in Accra, Ghana, are analyzed. Based on iterative open coding of the interviews, the focus of the analysis is on mental health, marital instability, social interaction and gendered experiences.

RESULTS: Infertile women report facing severe social stigma, marital strain and a range of mental health difficulties. Many women feel that they shoulder a disproportionate share of the blame for infertility and, by extension, face greater social consequences than male partners for difficulties conceiving. Women who do not self-identify as infertile corroborate these findings, asserting that the social consequences of infertility are severe, particularly for women.

CONCLUSIONS: Infertility in Ghana has important consequences for social interactions, marital stability and mental health. These consequences are not perceived to be shared equally by Ghanaian men.

Birthweight and thinness at birth independently predict symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood

Publicado em 28 Fevereiro de 12 pela Human Reproduction, disponível no Oxford Journals.

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown and contested. While it has been suggested that PCOS could have origins in perturbed development, epidemiological findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to examine potential fetal origins of PCOS.

METHODS: A retrospective birth cohort of 948 singleton female babies born at one hospital in South Australia in 1973–1975 was assembled. Birth characteristics were obtained from hospital records and PCOS symptoms were identified through interview and clinical examination when women were

Conteúdo atualizado em: 17 de Abril de 2014

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